Sacroiliac Joint Disease
What is Sacroiliac Joint?
Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ) complex is the largest spinal joint of the body. There are two Sacroiliac Joints in the pelvis that connects the Sacrum (triangular tail bone at the bottom of the spine) with Ilium (large bones in pelvis). The main function of the Sacroiliac Joints is to transmit all the forces of the upper body to your hips & legs. The Sacroiliac Joints also act as shock absorbers for your body and provide stability as you run, jump or walk. Each joint contains nerve endings that can cause significant pain if the joint is damaged or loses the ability to move properly. Based on data from different studies, Sacroiliac Joint disease is present in 10 to 45% of patients suffering from chronic lower back pain.
What are the causes of Sacroiliac Joint Pain?
Sacroiliac Joint pain can be due to different causes such as:
- Inflammation of Sacroiliac Joint - Sacroiliitis
- Arthritis (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis) of the joint
- Joint diseases of the vertebral column
- Altered walking pattern
- Prior back surgery (lumbar fusion)
- Injury or disease of muscles or ligaments around the joint
- Injury of the joint
- Infection of the joint
What are symptoms of Sacroiliac Joint disease?
Sacroiliac Joint disease can be difficult to differentiate from other causes of low back pain. There are some common symptoms:
- Low back pain: Dull pain on side of your lower back that can also extend to your thigh
- Buttock pain: Pain can range from an ache to sharp stabbing pain that may extend down your leg
- Low back pain when climbing stairs: Any movement that causes you to twist your pelvis may produce sacroiliac joint pain
How do you diagnose Sacroiliac Joint pain?
Provocative tests can reproduce or provoke pain that is being experienced as a result of Sacroiliac Joint disease. These provocative test include:
- FABER Test
- Compression test
- Thigh thrust test
- Gaenslen test
Pain relief in response to Sacroiliac Joint injection is considered the gold standard for diagnosing Sacroiliac Joint disease,